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Wednesday, September 29, 2010
Old Style - Used late 15th century to early 18th century
Developed out of handwriting and stone inscription
Modest contrast between thick and thin strokes
slight diagonal axis
scooped serifs, sturdy without being heavy
Examples: Bembo, Caslon, Garamond, Jenson, Palatino
Transitional - Used early and mid 18th century
Combination of old style characteristics and new styles.
contrast between thick and thin strokes is more pronounced
very slight diagonal stress
Examples: Baskerville, Caslon, Perpetua, Bulmer, Bell
Modern - Used late 18th to early 19th century
Even width amongst the characters.
extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes
flat unbracketed serifs
no horizontal stress
mathematical construction /measurements
no influence by handwriting
Examples: Bodoni, Bauer Bodoni, Walbaum, Didone
Slab Serif - Used 19th century
Based on precise mathematical measurements
seldom used in body text, usually used in large headlines and advertisements
Examples: Rockwell, Courier, Memphis Clarendon, New Century Schoolbook
usually blacker type color
Standard in English typography
Typically used for headlines rather than body text
Examples: Bauhaus, Bank Gothic, Century Gothic, Impact, Helvetica, Futura
Script – Used 18th century
Based on the varied and fluid stroke created by handwriting
Similar to cursive writing
Looser, more casual scripts
Used for announcements, etc.
Examples: Monotype Corsiva, Brush Script, Lucinda Calligraphy, Apple Chancery, Coronet
Blackletter – used 14th and 15th centuries
sometimes called Old English or Gothic script
uses letterspacing for distinction
tall, narrow letters
sharp, straight, angular lines
Examples: Fraktur, Cursiva, Hybrida, Schwabacher
Weathered, worn, or grundgy appearance
Legibility is difficult
Examples: Scumbag, Inked God, Soul Mission, Black Oak, Ginga Font
Each letter and character occupy the same amount of horizontal space
The first monospaced fonts were designed for typewriters, which could only move the same space forward with each letter typed.
The text will align more readily.
Crisp, clear characters
Examples: Monaco, Letter Gothic, Courier, Consolas, Andale Mono
Mix between other styles
Examples: Cooper Black, Gotham
Sans Serif or Serif - Serif
Name of the Designer – Firmin Didot
Date it was designed - 1783
Classification – Modern
List its family members: Roman, Italic, Bold...(small caps)
Baseline – invisible line on which the characters sit. Rounded letters such as e may extend below the baseline.
Cap height – distance from the baseline to the top of the uppercase letter.
x-height – height of a lowercase “x”. It can vary between typefaces.
serif style – serif style typefaces have an extra stroke at the ends of a character, known as a serif. A serif only appears at the end of the main strokes of a letter-form.
stroke width – the thickness of the main diagonal part of a letter. A letter’s relative amount of blackness. Examples: Regular, light
final/terminal – the connection, usually curved, between a stroke and a serif.
barb – small “serifs” at the end of a curved letterform. Example: C, S
spur – A projection smaller than a serif that reinforces the point at the end of a curved stroke, such as G. A spur only occurs at the end of a curved letter-form.
ear – stroke attached to the bowl of the lowercase g. It can be a distinctive element of some typefaces.
loop – the open or enclosed counter. Examples: b, d, g, o, p, q.
link – curved connection between the bowl and the loop of a two-story g.
g one story or two story – g vs. g
tail – descending stroke of a Q. It extends below the baseline and does not contain serifs. Also the downward diagonal stoke on K or R.
apex – top part of a character where two strokes meet. It can be pointed, round, or cut off. Example: A
leg – lower, down sloping stroke of the K, k and R. It touches the baseline.
Tuesday, September 7, 2010
Adrian Frutiger was a famous Swiss typographer and typeface designer of the 20th century. He is most famous for his development of one of the most successful typefaces in history, Univers.
Frutiger’s career in design began as a sculpturist and graphic designer after studying in Zurich. After graduating, he worked in Paris at a type foundry. He later joined two others in establishing a graphic design studio, where he worked as a freelance typographer. He devoted most of his attention to legibility, which he believed to be one of the most important aspects of typeface. He successfully created a typeface easily readable from both up close and afar.
As a result of his discontentment for the commonly used typeface Futura, Frutiger began his development of his own typeface, Univers in 1957. When it was first designed, this sans serif typeface included 21 variations. It features “optically even stroke weights and a large x-height to improve legibility.” Today, there are over 27 different variations of Univers available.
Frutiger later developed the typeface Frutiger, which is a branch off Univers.
In 1975, the Frutiger typeface was implemented on multiple signs throughout the Charles De Gaulle Airport in Paris.
Univers is unique because for the first time, a number system was used to identify different styles of the typeface (example: 45 light)
The Univers grid is used to show the variations in comparison to one another. It displays 21 variations of the Univers typeface, including various weight, width, and position combinations.